Knowledgebase: Macintosh
Apple - Resetting NVRAM / PRAM (Zapping the PRAM)
Posted by Keli C Fancher on 22 December 2009 02:33 PM

Background Information

Parameter Access Memory (PRAM) is battery backed up memory that users do not have access to.
PRAM stores user preferences from the operating system's control panel.
These include Time/Date, Network Settings, Desktop Settings, and many more.
Some times the PRAM gets corrupt causing system freezing or crashes. Zapping will reset the memory to Apple's predefined settings.

Resetting NVRAM / PRAM

  1. Shut down your Mac.
  2. Locate the following keys on the keyboard: Command (⌘), Option, P, and R.
    • You will need to hold these keys down simultaneously in step 4.
  3. Turn on the computer.
  4. Press and hold the Command-Option-P-R keys before the gray screen appears.
  5. Hold the keys down until the computer restarts 3 times; until you hear the startup sound four times.
  6. Release the keys.

After resetting NVRAM or PRAM, you may need to reconfigure your settings for speaker volume, screen resolution, startup disk selection, and time zone information. If issues persist, your Mac's logic board battery (not a portable Mac's rechargeable battery) may need to be replaced. The logic board battery helps retain NVRAM/PRAM settings when your computer is shut down. You can take your Mac to a Mac Genius or Apple Authorized Service Provider to replace the battery on the logic board.

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